Chilean journal of agricultural research vol. 83 num. 1 lang. es
- Nitrogen fertilizer promoting salt tolerance of two sorghum varieties under different salt compositionsel enero 26, 2023 a las 10:56 pm
ABSTRACT Soil salinization is more aggravating than ever before and techniques are needed to mitigate this problem; understanding salinity-fertilizer relationship is of considerable economic importance for promoting crop growth and productivity in saline soil. A pot experiment was done in a greenhouse to determine whether the N could alleviate the negative effect of different salts compositions on the growth, and physiological attributes of the two most used Sudan sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars (Wadahmed and Tabat). The plant was subjected to the salt stress at 0, 0.3419 M NaCl, and 0.1408 M Na2SO4, and four levels of N application 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N kg-1 soil, designated as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively. Results showed that Na2SO4 was reduced plant height, leaf area index, number of leaves, dry weight (DW), chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll content, and increased soluble protein content, activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities by 16.4%, 29.7%, 61.5%, 28.7%, 39.6%, 12.7%, 99.7%, 34.3%, 51.8%, respectively, when compared with the non-saline treatment. The Na2SO4 salt had a more harmful effect than NaCl. This study revealed that N fertilizer was successful for alleviating the adverse impacts of both types of salt. In this study, 12 g N kg-1 soil was most effective on most of the measured parameters of two sorghum cultivars. These findings demonstrated that the N soil amendment application could alleviate the harmful impact of salinity. ‘Wadahmed’ was more tolerant to salinity stress than ‘Tabat’ during the boot stage of sorghum plant.
- Geostatistical analysis of fall armyworm damage and edaphoclimatic conditions of a mosaic of agroecosystems predominated by push-pull systemsel enero 26, 2023 a las 10:56 pm
ABSTRACT Some agroecological pest management systems manipulate insect behavior. The push-pull systems are the most functional implemented, reducing the insect-pest density and modifying its distribution. The present work analyzed the spatial distribution of incidence and severity of fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and soil moisture and temperature in maize (Zea mays L.) crops of a mosaic of agroecosystems predominated by push-pull systems established in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico. Univariate and multivariate spatial estimates were performed by geostatistical analysis applying ordinary kriging and cokriging, respectively. The results indicated that FAW incidence and severity presented an aggregated spatial distribution and soil moisture and temperature, a more continuous distribution. The estimated spatial distributions in the third week indicated that FAW incidence in push-pull systems varied between 10% and 40%, and in maize monocultures, between 35% and 90%. Fall armyworm damage severity ranged between 20% and 70% in monocultures and between 1% and 25% in the push-pull systems.
- Secondary growth rye or triticale silage: Small-grain cereals as a dual-purpose forage option for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Mexicoel enero 26, 2023 a las 10:56 pm
ABSTRACT Small-grain cereals may be a forage alternative for small-scale dairy systems under limiting climatic conditions given their short agronomic cycle. Cereals as dual-purpose forages (grazing and silage) have not been evaluated in Mexico. The objective was to assess the inclusion of rye (Secale cereale L.) (SCS) or triticale (×Triticosecale spp.) silage (TRS). The treatments were: T1 = 10 kg DM cow-1 d-1 SCS, T2 = 10 kg DM TRS, in both treatments with grazing access (8 h d-1) of a Kikuyu grass (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) pasture and supplemented with 3.6 kg DM cow-1 d-1 concentrate; in a double cross-over with six cows and three 14 d experimental periods, animal (milk yield, live weight, body condition score, and sampling for milk composition) and feed variables (net herbage accumulation, sward height and sampling for chemical composition) were recorded during the last 4 d of each period. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments for milk yield (13.3 ± 2.8 kg cow-1 d-1), live weight (512.1 ± 85.9 kg), body condition score (2.2 ± 0.2), milk fat (35.8 ± 5.2 g kg-1), milk protein (27.8 ± 0.6 g kg-1), milk urea N (9.8 ± 2.5 mg dL-1) or milk pH (6.8 ± 0.07). Feeding costs were lower in SCS (P < 0.05); which may be an alternative for small-scale dairy systems. It is concluded that both rye and triticale are good alternatives as dual-purpose forage crops.
- Factibility of growing basil as an alternative crop for adaptation to climate change in Bosnia and Herzegovinael enero 26, 2023 a las 10:56 pm
ABSTRACT Extremely high temperatures and droughts are expected in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the coming years due to climate change. These phenomena negatively affect most traditionally grown crops. However, optimal growth conditions can be provided for plants that originate from warmer climates. One of the alternative species that can be grown in high summer temperatures is basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of different cultivars and growing locations on the contents of some bioactive components, yield, and the possibility of growing basil under the environmental conditions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The treatment used in this study consisted of a combination of four different cultivars (Genovese, Minimum, Green, and Red Rubin) and two growing locations (Kakanj and Butmir). The results showed that in Bosnia and Herzegovina, favorable conditions exist for growing basil, and different cultivars and growing locations had significant effects on basil yield and quality. The highest fresh mass yield (447.28 g plant-1), dry mass yield (98.84 g plant-1), and oil content (1.49 mL 100 g-1) were recorded in ‘Green’. The highest total phenolic content (32.49 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1) and antioxidant capacity (43.43 µM Fe2+ g-1) were recorded in ‘Minimum’. Furthermore, the fresh mass yield and dry mass yield were higher in Butmir (446.57 and 85.62 g plant-1, respectively) compared to the growing location of Kakanj (174.08 and 85.62 g plant-1, respectively).
- Application of bio and NPK fertilizer to improve yield soybean and acid sulfate soil properties in Indonesiael enero 26, 2023 a las 10:56 pm
ABSTRACT In Indonesia, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the second most important staple food with low production compared to the demand. This problem can be overcome by using marginal land such as acid sulfate soil of tidal swampland, however, the optimal application of fertilizer in such soil is minimal. Therefore, this study aims to examine the application of fertilizer in acid sulfate soil in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was conducted using a split-plot design with three replicates and the main plot was biofertilizer, which consisted of no-biofertilizer (P1); biofertilizer consortium of decomposer fungi, P-solubilizing bacteria, N-fixing bacteria (P2), and biofertilizer consortium of N-fixing bacteria symbiotic and nonsymbiotic, P-solubilizing bacteria and phytohormone-producing bacteria (P3). Meanwhile, the subplot was NPK fertilizer dosage, consisting of no-fertilizer (A1), dose of 150% (A2), dose of 100% (A3), and dose of 50% (A4) of the recommendation. The results showed that the biofertilizer and NPK fertilization dose did not show an interaction with soil pH and Al3+. The highest N and K nutrient uptake was in P2 at 50% NPK fertilizer dosage, while P in P3 at 150% NPK fertilization dose. The highest soybean yields were obtained in the application of biofertilizer P3 with 150% NPK, i.e., 1.6 t ha-1, followed by the 1.5 t ha-1 in the application of P2 + 50% NPK. This showed that the use of P2 biofertilizer can reduce NPK fertilizer application to 50% in soybean plants in acid soil tidal lands. Furthermore, the application of biofertilizers can increase soybean productivity in acid sulfate soil in Indonesia.