Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science
Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science vol. 26 num. 51 lang. en
- IFRS adoption and firms’ opacity around the world: what factors affect this relationship?el día noviembre 28, 2021 a las 12:26 am
Abstract Purpose. This paper aims to identify what are the moderating factors affecting the relationship between firms’ adoption of international financial and reporting standards (IFRS) and the firm’s opacity. Design/methodology/approach. This study uses the meta-analysis methodology from Hunter et al. (1982) to find if the mere IFRS adoption reduces firm’s opacity and a meta-regression from Stanley and Jarrell (1989) to identify the moderating factors that may influence this relationship. Findings. Contrary to previous studies, this study finds a low, negative and nonsignificant correlation between IFRS adoption and firms’ opacity, but this relationship depends on the geographical region. Using 34 results from 28 studies from different continents published between 2005 and 2018 this study finds that IFRS adoption reduces opacity in countries with common law (COML) and with more authorities’ oversight and power to enforce the rules. Originality/value. This study finds two institutional commonalities between different previous studies that intend to assess the impact of the IFRS adoption upon firms’ opacity: the legal system and the authorities’ oversight power.
- Institutional quality and risk in the banking systemel día noviembre 28, 2021 a las 12:26 am
Abstract Purpose. This paper aims to offer an empirical study of the impact of institutional quality on the banking system risk and credit risk. Design/methodology/approach. Applying cross-sectional dependent tests and stationary tests to check the property of our sample, the panel corrected standard errors model is recruited as the main estimator, while feasible generalized least squares, pool ordinary least squares (OLS), robust pool OLS and other estimators are used as a robustness check for an unbalanced panel data for 56 economies divided into three subsamples between 2002 and 2015. Findings. The empirical results show several significant contributions. First, an improvement in institutional quality is an important factor to reduce the banking system risk. This effect of the institutions is less important in well-capitalized, highly profitable and in high-economic growth countries. This effect is also stronger in highly liquid banking systems. Notably, a better institutional quality helps to reduce the banking system risk in the highly concentrated banking system. Second, institutional quality has a significant negative relationship with the banking credit risk, especially in highly concentrated banking systems and in high-growth countries. This influence is weaker in highly liquid and well-capitalized banking systems. Finally, better institutions reduce the positive effect of trade openness, but it induces a higher credit risk for the banking system from the trade openness. Notably, a better institutional quality enhances the negative effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow on both banking system risk and credit risk. These findings are documented for a global sample and three subsamples: low and lower-middle-income economies, upper-middle-income economies and high-income economies. Originality/value. This study provides some recommendations, for policymakers, on the roles of institutions in the banking system and financial stability.
- Financial system specialization and private research and development expenditure: research for OECD countriesel día noviembre 28, 2021 a las 12:26 am
Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role that different financial sources and financial specialization have on private research and development (R&D) activity in OECD countries. Design/methodology/approach. The authors developed several panel regressions choosing as a final model a two-way random effects regression to understand which funding sources are related to the R&D expenditure, and how financial specialization has links to the private portion of R&D aggregated expenditure. The authors include data from the years 2000 to 2016 for OECD countries. Findings. The results reinforce the critical role that stock markets have in enhancing private R&D and that bond markets have an inverse relationship with private R&D national expenditures. The authors do not find evidence of a link between bank sources and private R&D. Specialized financial systems (banking or market) support innovation in a better way than a mixed arrangement of those two systems. Practical implications. The findings of this study have considerable policy implications. Policymakers need to be aware of these results, given that some variables related to financial markets, seems to boost the inputs for R&D. In the long term, this could be a signal that national and regional systems of innovation need a broad view of the factors hampering scientific activity, and also a signal that there are other ways to impact the results of the complex innovation activity through the development of stronger financial systems backing up national systems of innovation. Originality/value. The authors found that the long discussion about the financial system that a country has to choose to enhance growth with R&D&I may have been misleading the public policy. The findings show that rather than a bank or a stock market financial system, economies looking to boost R&D&I, must specialize in one of the two systems, deepen these and generate the appropriate policies to promote science, technology and innovation using those financial markets.
- Pensionable age vs cross-country diversity of economic activity of the near-elderlyel día noviembre 28, 2021 a las 12:26 am
Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether cross-country differences in pensionable age explain such differences in economic activity of people at near-retirement age. Design/methodology/approach. The empirical study uses regression models for macro-panel encompassing 21 European countries in the period 2008-2014. Findings. Empirical results indicate that pensionable age is a determinant of cross-country differences in employment rate in the near-retirement age group, and less a factor differentiating average effective retirement age. It turns out that other factors matter, including salaries and wages as percentage of GDP (treated as a proxy for the occupational composition of populations across the countries studied), self-employment, participation in education and training, or self-perceived health. Social implications. The problem of economic activity at the near-retirement age is complex and cannot be limited to legal regulations concerning pensionable age. The policy aiming at stimulating the economic activity of the near-elderly should include actions on many sides including labour market, pension system, education, training, or health care. Originality/value. The results complement studies based on the single-country approach and demonstrate that pensionable age does not account for cross-country differences in terms of average effective age of retirement when controlling for other factors. Moreover, factors differentiating effective retirement age and employments rates across countries studied are not similar.
- Relationship between cash holdings and expected equity returns: evidence from Pacific alliance countriesel día noviembre 28, 2021 a las 12:26 am
Abstract Purpose - This paper aims to examine the relationship between cash holdings (CH) and expected equity return in a sample of firms of Pacific alliance countries. Design/methodology/approach - This paper constructed a panel of Pacific alliance firms for the period ranging from 2010 to 2016. This paper estimated different specification models using multivariate regression, and the statistical technique used to validate the hypothesis was panel data. Findings - Results showed that there is a positive relationship between CH and expected equity return (r). The relationship between CH and systematic risk (ß) was estimated and this paper found a positive and statistically significant association. Findings suggest that corporate liquidity contains underlying information that contributes to explain the expected equity return, which, if ignored, can produce quite misleading results. Originality/value - The results of this study have both academic and practical implications. First, the findings of the research contribute to a better understanding of the asset pricing models in emerging countries. On the other hand, the results obtained in this study can serve shareholders to make better estimations of the expected equity return, so investors can improve the risk-return trade-off due to the model allow a better estimation of the risk-return relation.