Salud Mental journal is an official publication of the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. It has been published bimonthly and uninterruptedly since its foundation in August 1977. According to the ethical policies of scientific publishing, the Internal Review Board initially reviews the submitted manuscripts; The ones that are approved are reviewed through a double-blind process carried out by experts in each field. In addition, Salud Mental publishes monographic supplements on various mental health-related topics.
- Psychosocial profiles of women who legally terminated a pregnancy in Mexico Citypor Karla Flores-Celis el febrero 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Introduction. Reproductive autonomy enables a person to freely decide their life plan, including sexual and reproductive health. However, its exercise can be constrained by health determinants and other structural conditions. Knowing the background of women who undergo a Legal Interruption of Pregnancy (LIP) helps identify patterns of inequality and their impact on the exercise of reproductive autonomy.Objective. To analyze the profile of women who legally terminate a pregnancy in Mexico City.Method. Latent class analysis, with the participation of 274 women who terminated a first trimester pregnancy at a public facility.Results. Model of two latent classes: adult (68.34%) and young women (31.65%). Stigma was the predictor variable for class; the higher the score, the lower the probability of belonging to the adult group (p = .019). Adult women were characterized by having lower educational attainment, engaging in unpaid activities, having at least one child, and having had previous abortions, having experienced intimate partner violence in the past twelve months and reporting that their partners did not agree with the interruption of their pregnancy. Young women were students, partnered and reported that their partners had agreed with them to request an abortion.Discussion and conclusion. Despite the legal changes effected, stigma is still present in the abortion demand and access, particularly for women with certain characteristics. It would be useful to include interventions to reduce stigma in counseling, using an approach based on previous experience.
- Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers before and during COVID-19 and the role of self-esteem, maternal self-efficacy, and social supportpor Pamela Patiño el febrero 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Introduction. Although the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the mental health of vulnerable populations, such as adolescent mothers, very few studies have documented the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) in this population.Objective. a) Determine the frequency of PPD (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS] ≥ 9) in adolescent mothers before (AM-BP) and during (AM-DP) the pandemic, b) Examine psychosocial factors (self-esteem, maternal efficacy, social support, depression and anxiety in pregnancy, planned and wanted pregnancy) in AM-BP and AM-DP, and c) Determine whether being an AM-DP was a significant factor for experiencing PPD (EPDS ≥ 9).Method. Cross sectional study. Subjects: Forty-one AM-BP recruited at Health Centers and interviewed face to face and forty-one AM-DP surveyed online.Results. PPD (EPDS ≥ 9) was 42% (p = .001) more frequent in AM-DP. The groups differed significantly in all psychosocial factors, with AM-DP faring worse. Unadjusted regressions showed that being an AM-DP, having lower maternal efficacy and self-esteem, greater dissatisfaction with social support, and depression and/or anxiety in pregnancy increased PPD (EPDS ≥ 9). Adjusted multiple analysis indicated that lower self-esteem was the only factor to maintain its association with PPD (EPDS ≥ 9; p = .017).Discussion and conclusion. The pandemic negatively affected PPD (EPDS ≥ 9) and psychosocial factors in AM-DP, as compared to AM-BP, with self-esteem being the main factor associated with PPD (EPDS ≥ 9). In situations of extreme stress as happened in the pandemic, the mental health of adolescent mothers should be prioritized to prevent negative effects such as PPD. PPD preventive and treatment interventions should consider strengthening self-esteem.
- Depressive symptoms in pregnant women treated at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonorapor César Dalí González-Gastélum el febrero 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Introduction. Pregnancy, being a situation of vulnerability and with its inherent changes, places women at a great risk of depression. In Mexico, the prevalence of probable depression in pregnant women treated at the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, was 17.8%, assessed using the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS). To date, there are no data regarding this issue in Sonora.Objective. To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant women treated at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora (México).Method. An observational, descriptive, transversal, and prospective study was conducted in 2021, applying the EPDS in 168 2nd/3rd trimester pregnant women, selected by non-probabilistic sampling by consecutive cases. Sociodemographic variables, pathological/non-pathological, gynecological, and obstetrical personal history were explored. The analysis was performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables; for qualitative variables, frequency and percentage; χ2 test to assess differences in distribution of depressive symptomatology by age and the rest of variables.Results. A global prevalence of “probable depression” of 14.3% was determined. The majority, within 20-29 age group, with a partner and a planned/desired pregnancy. High school educational level, 50%. History of intimate partner violence, 54.2%. Almost 40%, primigravida. Substance use, denied. Overweight/obesity, in 70%.Discussion and conclusion. There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, going unnoticed for reasons such as insufficient knowledge (patient/health care providers), since there is no routine screening. It is imperative to work on prevention, detection and treatment, since it entails multiple consequences at a binomial, family, and social level.
- Perinatal mental health: The launching spot to our mental healthpor Mónica Flores-Ramos el febrero 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
The complexity of caring for two minds at a single time, happens when an expecting mother is, in turn, taking care of her future baby. All the efforts of the health provider must converge at this moment to maintain the greatest well-being of both the mother and the fetus. However, in reality, difficulties are present and determine some mental symptoms. Moreover, illnesses like depression and anxiety are not discarded in the perinatal period. It is well known that emotional disorders are common during pregnancy, especially in vulnerable populations (WHO, 2021). In Mexican women, perinatal depression has been estimated to range from 8.2% to 20%, depending on the timing of the evaluation (Lara et al., 2015), while perinatal anxiety symptoms reported rate is 21% in the pregnancy and 18% in the postpartum (Juárez Padilla, 2021). Those disorders are frequently unrecognized and untreated, with the consequences that entail them (Flores-Ramos et al., 2013). Mental comorbidities during pregnancy exert important impacts on both growth and neurodevelopment of the fetus and the neonate, with adverse outcomes for both mother and the offspring in the postnatal life.
- Bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed literature on perinatal depression in Mexicopor David Osvaldo Cruz-Cano el febrero 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Background. Perinatal depression (PND) is a clinical disease developed in any stage during the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious health and economic implications.Objective. The aim of this work was to analyze via bibliometrics indicators Mexico’s production on PND to provide a view of the academic landscape and a comprehensive reference for subsequent research in the country.Method. The Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases were used to perform a search for peer reviewed papers related to PND in México. The search was made following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The extracted data were processed with VOS Viewer to examine link strength and clusters associations of diverse bibliometrics variables.Results. A total of 132 records were retrieved and we included 70 studies in the bibliometric analysis after application of the exclusion criteria. The authors with more papers were Navarrete L., and Asunción Lara M. The institutions with more papers were the National Institute of Perinatology, Ramón de la Fuente National Institute of Psychiatry, and National Institute of Public Health of Mexico. A diminution of the research considered in PND is observed in the last two years. Four keyword clusters were identified related to PND: symptoms, prevalence, pregnancy.Discussion and conclusion. The scarce literature concerning PND in Mexico compared with other countries could be due the limited collaboration between the health institutes. An urgent need to increase research on PND in Mexico is evident to be applicable in the management of resources in the healthcare system.