The Spanish Journal of Psychology The <i>Spanish Journal of Psychology</i> is published with the aim of promoting the international dissemination of relevant empirical research and theoretical and methodological proposals in the various areas of specialization within psychology.
- Executive Functions and Improvement of Thinking: An Intervention Program to Enhance Deductive Reasoning Abilitiespor García-Madruga, Juan Antonio el diciembre 15, 2022 a las 12:00 am
Empirical and theoretical advances and application to society are moved at different speed. Application work is frequently developed later because it requires the integration of knowledge from different research areas. In the present paper, we integrate literature coming from diverse areas of research in order to design a deductive reasoning intervention, based on the involved executive functions. Executive functions include working memory (WM)’s online executive processes and other off-line functions such as task revising and planning. Deductive reasoning is a sequential thinking process driven by reasoners’ meta-deductive knowledge and goals that requires the construction and manipulation of representations. We present a new theoretical view about the relationship between executive function and higher-level thinking, a critical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of cognitive training, and a metacognitive training procedure on executive functions to improve deductive reasoning. This procedure integrates direct instruction on deduction and meta-deductive concepts (consistency, necessity) and strategies (search for counterexamples and exhaustivity), together with the simultaneous training of WM and executive functions involved: Focus and switch attention, update WM representations, inhibit and revise intuitive responses, and control the emotional stress yielded by tasks. Likewise, it includes direct training of some complex WM tasks that demands people to carry out similar cognitive assignment than deduction. Our training program would be included in the school curriculum and attempts not only to improve deductive reasoning in experimental tasks, but also to increase students’ ability to uncover fallacies in discourse, to automatize some basic logical skills, and to be able to use logical intuitions.
- Dyadic Coping, Dyadic Coping Based Gratitude (DC-G), and Relationship Satisfaction in Pakistani Couplespor Shujja, Sultan el diciembre 2, 2022 a las 12:00 am
Dyadic coping-based gratitude (DC-G) refers to the reaction of appreciation and thankfulness in response to received problem-focused and emotion-focused positive dyadic coping (DC) behaviors by the partner. The actor-partner interdependent mediation model was used to test the mediating role of DC-G between DC and relationship satisfaction in a purposive sample of 300 Pakistani married couples, which were treated as indistinguishable following the use of a test for distinguishability. Mediation analysis demonstrated that DC-G partially mediated the couples’ DC and relationship satisfaction implying that the association between DC and relationship satisfaction strengthened as the DC-G intervenes in the path model. Additionally, the actor-actor or partner-partner indirect effects were stronger compared to the cross-partner effect suggesting that husbands or wives’ DC more strongly predicted corresponding relationship satisfaction via DC-G compared to husbands-wives’ DC. Implications are discussed within collectivistic cultural orientation and Islamic religious obligations regarding marital relationships in Pakistani couples.
- “It is Typical of Teenagers”: When Teachers Morally Disengage from Cyberbullyingpor Pereira, Nádia Salgado el diciembre 1, 2022 a las 12:00 am
Teachers can contribute to preventing and solving cyberbullying situations. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate what may influence their involvement and actions concerning this phenomenon. A first study analyze teachers’ definitions of cyberbullying, how they would intervene and feel morally implicated with the phenomenon. A second study aimed to investigate the association between teachers’ being aware of cyberbullying and their perceived severity, moral disengagement with the phenomenon, perceived performance to solve such situations and their acquired knowledge about cyberbullying. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in the first study with 25 to 65-year-old teachers. An online inventory was answered in study two by 541 middle and high school teachers (Mage = 50, SD = 7). A thematic analysis from the first study revealed that most teachers did not report repetition of behavior, power imbalance, intentionality to harm, and occurrence among peers as defining features of cyberbullying. Also, strategies they would use to intervene mainly focused on reporting the incident. Moreover, moral disengagement mechanisms were found in teachers’ discourse, which contribute to displacing responsibility for intervening and perceiving cyberbullying as less severe. In the second study, path analysis revealed that teachers’ awareness of cyberbullying among their students was positively associated with moral disengagement and acquired knowledge of the phenomenon. The mediating role of acquired knowledge of cyberbullying was significant between being aware of cyberbullying and teachers’ perceived severity of the situation, moral disengagement, and perceived performance to solve these situations. These findings highlight the relevance of developing cyberbullying training actions involving teachers.
- When More is More: Do Non-Restricted Goals Benefit Employers and the Environment Too?por Patrasc-Lungu, Adelaida el noviembre 24, 2022 a las 12:00 am
Prior research on goal self-concordance (GSC) and goal attainment (GA) has studied these dimensions as transversal sections through a person’s life domains. Blending the recent developments in self-determination theory and pro-environmental behavior literature, the current study introduced the concept of non-restricted goals and explored whether work climate (WCQ) and environmental identity (EID) impact GA and, through it, in-role job performance (IRB), organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and wellbeing, as well as organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBE). It also explored GSC along with basic psychological needs’ satisfaction (BPNS) and GA, as explanatory mechanisms. The study relied on data collected at two different moments in time, with a retained sample of 201 employees from different organizations. Results confirmed that WCQ and EID are relevant antecedents for IRB, OCB and wellbeing, as well as OCBE. Except for the direct relationship between EID and OCB/OCBE, most of these impacts were indirect, through BPNS, GSC or GA. The current study did not find a significant relationship between GSC and GA, adding to the line of mixed results regarding their relationship. The findings inform pro-environmental interventions in the workplace, as well as human resource management practices that foster employee wellbeing, work-life balance, and job performance.
- The Healthy Context Paradox: When Reducing Bullying comes at a Cost to Certain Victimspor Lucas-Molina, Beatriz el noviembre 3, 2022 a las 12:00 am
Bullying remains one of the most serious problems affecting school systems around the world. The negative consequences of bullying in the short and long term have been widely documented, showing that victimized students are at greater risk of suffering psychosocial distress. In this paper, we first summarize the current situation of bullying prevention, adopting a contextual perspective, and briefly highlighting the characteristics of the most effective prevention programs. Secondly, we address a disturbing phenomenon detected in classrooms where bullying has been reduced through interventions and which has been termed “the healthy context paradox”. In these healthier contexts, students who remain in a situation of victimization have been found to present poorer psychological adjustment after the intervention. Understanding the causes of this phenomenon may offer clues for the prevention of bullying. In this regard, we present three hypotheses recently proposed to explain the phenomenon. Finally, we offer some implications for the study and prevention of bullying derived from “the healthy context paradox”.